Nutritional needs and nutritional significance of nutrients

For regular functioning of an organism it is necessary to take in appropriate quantities of nutrients. Besides water, most of food comprises nutrients carrying energy, so-called macronutrients. Minerals and vitamins comprise micronutrients since they are needed in significantly lower quantities and they are found in almost every food people use.

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Importance of physical activity

Regular physical activity is of great importance from the physical, physiological and social aspects, but also because of the impact it has on keeping the body weight stable, reduction of blood pressure, increase of HDL good cholesterol and reducing the risk of diabetes and some categories of cancer. Nowadays, it is believed that if engagement in sports starts at early age, it will be very beneficial for developing the working habits, adoption of discipline, preventing the obesity and bad posture (curved spine, flat feet) Many epidemiological studies and researches proved that physical inactivity is one of factors that cause appearance and development of incommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and some malign illnesses. According to the World Health Organization,(WHO), these diseases are the leading factors that cause mortality in the world. Of all deaths both in Serbia and in the countries of European region in 2007, 85% were caused due to these chronic incommunicable diseases. In spite of this knowledge, at least one third of Western Europe adult population is not sufficiently physically active. Similar statistic applies for Serbia. A Health research of the Serbian population conducted in 2006 showed that two-thirds of the population of Serbia (67.7%) spent their free time in a sedentary way. Percentage of employees with sedentary type of job was significantly higher than in 2000. The fact that more and more young people spend their time watching television or playing games is alarming. This research confirms that the percentage of children who spend their time in this way is higher in 2006 than it was in 2000 (from 58.8% to 73.3%).Physical activity is one of the easiest ways to improve health. It contributes to calories burning and consumption of the energy we get by food intake, and thus affects the maintenance of desired body weight, and then reduces levels of sugar and cholesterol in blood. Regular activity leads to decreased level of blood pressure and reduced risk of heart disease by 50%. Physically active people are in better mood, and are more satisfied with themthemselves. When it comes to physical activity, most people think of hard training. However, it is enough to walk, as the simplest form of physical activity, which can fit into everyday responsibilities. E.g. we can walk to the store or go to work instead of driving or we can walk between two bus stations. If the position involves a lot of sitting, we should make sure that whenever we have a chance, we walk for a couple of minutes. The WHO recommendation for adults is 30 minutes of moderate physical activity every day. The recommended time can be divided into shorter periods, but no less than 10 minutes. Children should be active at least 60 minutes every day. Exercise speeds up breathing, increases the amount of oxygen one breathe in, speeds up the heart, stimulates the circulation and enhances the work of brain fitness and stamina. Regular physical activity is the best guardian of health.

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Child nutrition

Development of proper eating habits begins at early age. It is very important for us to have diversity is of viands, their adequate preparation and our meals to be regular. This is how we can prevent the chronic incommunicable diseases from appearing later in our lives. It is very important in the beginning what is offered to children. It is necessary to limit the amount of food to the appetite of the child and not to duplicate meals. As the child grows society will influence more and more their eating habits. That is why the nutrition in preschool and school facilities is important for maintaining the eating habits. In schools, meals should be an adequate substitute for a good part of the diet that child eats out at home. Irregularities in the diet of children which are result of inadequate family nutrition should be corrected and children should be helped to develop regular eating habits. Such meals should not be expensive, but nutrient enriched, tasty and suitable for children. In time, the biggest influence on the children nutrition will have their peers. A small number of children take the sandwich or fruit from home. If the food known as fast food is often consumed, insufficient intake of milk, fruits, vegetables and adequate nutrients can be expected. This diet leads to obesity and it significantly increases the risk of chronic incommunicable diseases. According to research on health condition of Serbia population from 2006, there has been an increase in the number of pre-obese and obese children compared to the year 2000. In 2006 there were 18% of moderately obese and obese children and the youth between age of 7 and 19, which is increase compared to 2000 when this figure was 12, 6%. How does the child nutrition should look like? Children should be offered with a rich source of different viands, based on cereals, fruits and vegetables with adequate intake of milk and dairy products, protein-rich variants such as lent meats, fish, and eggs. Moderate intake of fat and sugar is an important factor for prevention of chronic incommunicable diseases in later age.

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Nutritive facts &Recommended Daily Intake

For regular functioning of an organism it is necessary to take in appropriate quantities of nutrients. Besides water, most of food comprises nutrients carrying energy, so-called macronutrients. Minerals and vitamins comprise micronutrients since they are needed in significantly lower quantities and they are found in almost every food people use. From the text below you may learn more about upcoming nutrients and you may analyse your own diet.

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Macronutrients

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Carbohydrates

Recommended intake

Carbohydrates should provide 55-65% of needed energy per day. Needs for carbohydrates depend on energy needs of an organism, so the persons performing manual labour have to provide more energy through food than those dealing with intellectual work.

Function in an organism

Carbohydrates present source of energy, provide metabolites and necessary energy for metabolic processes of other nutritive substances; they participate in prevention from chronic non-contagious diseases.

The best food resources

They are found in cereals, fruit, vegetables, legumes, nuts, grains. They are present in milk and dairy products (non-fermented products contain lactose).

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Fats

Recommended intake

Fats should provide 30% of energy that is needed daily. Saturated fats percentage should be limited to most 10% in total daily energy.

Function in an organism

Fats are energy resources. They ensure many metabolic functions of an organism; they are building elements of cell membranes and they are needed for their proper functioning.

The best food resource

High content of saturated fatty acids is found in pork, delicatessen, ripened cheese, cream, yolk. Low content of fatty acids mentioned here is found in veal, yoghurt, unripen cheese. High content of monounsaturated fatty acids is found in eggs, duck meat, while there is low content of them in chicken and turkey meat. Low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids is found in fish and sea food. Fats and oils saturated: butter, vegetable fat, hard margarine monounsaturated: olive and peanut oil polyunsaturated: sunflower oil, corn oil, soft margarine. All the products of Bambi are without non-trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acids are non-saturated fatty acids which have one or more double (non-saturated) connections (links) in trans configuration (trans means that two adjacent (next) carbon atoms are linked with opposite sides of double connection). Hydrogenated oils contain huge quantity of so-called trans fats. Naturally they are found in milk, dairy and fats of ruminants. Trans-fat may originate even when natural fatty acid undergoes changes by oil processing at high temperatures. They also occur from partial hydrogenation (introduction of hydrogen into molecule), that is, vegetable fats becoming firm. Such fatty acids may be double linked, cross-linked, distorted or warped in various ways. They are mostly found in margarine, sweets, crisps, vegetable cheese and all fast food – and as such they are completely unnecessary. Trans fatty acids give firm structure to the products they are integrated in. Why did Bambi eliminate trans fats from its products? Bambi eliminated trans fats from its products because of the care for the health of consumers, respecting the recommendations of World Health Organization both in food and production of confectionary products. Medical tests show that there is a strong connection between heart disease and consumption of trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acids, increase the level of ''bad'' LDL cholesterol and lower the level of ''good'' HDL cholesterol. Many clinical nutritionists think that proportion of total cholesterol in comparison to HDL cholesterol is more significant in estimation of cardiovascular risk. If we perceive effect that every group of fatty acids has on this proportion, first we can see that trans increases this proportion and therefore has unfavourable impact on risk of cardiovascular diseases.

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Proteins

They participate with 10-15% in total energy intake. Average daily needs are about 1g/kg of body weight and gender, age, and intensity of work have an impact on the same.

Function in an organism

Proteins are structural and functional components of all the cells in body. All enzymes, molecule for blood transportation, hair, and nails are proteins. Likewise, they comprise many of hormones, and are included in cell membrane composition. Proteins are also energy source.

The best food resource

Milk, meat, eggs, soy, peanuts, cereals. Besides proteins of vegetable origin (soy and wheat flour), Plazma contains also proteins of animal origin originating from butter and milk.

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Fibres

Recommended intake

Content of fibres in diet of healthy adults should be 20-30g. Certain food rich in diet fibre, like the whole cereal grain or some kinds of fruit contains in the shell phytate which make iron and zinc reabsorption difficult, therefore, it is not recommended for infants and children by the age of two to take food rich in fibres.

Function in an organism

Food rich in diet fibres regulates digestion (it stimulates intestinal peristalsis), improves glycaemic control, lowers the cholesterol level in blood, and prolongs satiety feeling.

The best food resource

Integral cereals, fruits, vegetables. On all Bambi products the content of fibre is declared (specified). Product that is according to the content of fibres placed into the natural resource of fibres is Plazma Dobar start.

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Micronutrients

Vitamins

Vitamin A

Recommended intake

Optimal daily intake is expressed in the required amount of vitamin A, i.e. retinol equivalent (RE). 1,0 µg of retinol equivalent is equal to 1,0 µg of retinol, that is, 6,0 µg beta-carotene. According to recommendations of WHO, needs of adults are from 500 and 600 µg of retinol.

Function in an organism

It has an important role in retina function (for eyesight). It is needed for growth and development of bone tissue, regular reproduction, embryo development; it supports functioning of immune system and lessens the consequences of some infectious diseases.

The best food resource

Vitamin A is mostly found in milk and dairy products, yolk, some fatty fish, cod-liver oil. Carotene is present in green part of leafy vegetables (spinach, greens, and lettuce) while there is less of it in root vegetable except for the carrot. Plazma keksići za decu & Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children are enriched with vitamin A (100g of the product contain240µg which is 30% of required daily intake of this vitamin). Pro-vitamin A, may be found in dry apricot, which, in the shape of pieces, is added into PlazmaDobar start.

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Thiamine

Recommended intake

When thiamine is important for metabolism of energy, daily calories are presented according to the calorie intake. USA recommends 0, 5 mg/1000 kcal for adults. During pregnancy and lactation needs are slightly higher. In recent years growing need among elderly people is pointed out since vitamin B1 is less used.

Function in an organism

Vitamin B1 has a significant function in metabolism of carbohydrates as a coenzyme in numerous reactions related to the proper functioning of muscle and system. It is necessary for proper functioning of nervous system, muscle system and heart muscle.

The best food resource

Thiamine can be mostly found in integral cereals, leguminous vegetables and pork meat while milk, eggs and other meat kinds are less rich in thiamine. Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children and Plazma Keksici za decu are enriched with vitamin B1 (100g of product contain 0,4mgwhich is 38% of required daily intake), as well as Plazma which in 100g of product contains 0,90mg of this vitamin(82% of required daily intake),Čokoplazma (100g of product contain 0,75mg which is 68% of required daily intake), Plazmica fully coated (100g of product contain 0,5mg which is 45% of required daily intake) and Plazma Dobar start (100g of product contain 0,63mgwhich is 57% of required daily intake). It is naturally found in cocoa powder which is an ingredient of the following Bambi products: ČokoPlazma, Plazmica fully coated and Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children. Pine apple contains vitamin B1, and it is an ingredient of Plazma Dobar start.

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Riboflavin

Recommended intake

It is recommended for adults to take in 0, 6 mg/1000 kcal daily. Needs are higher during pregnancy and lactation and among the persons having increased physical activities.

Function in an organism

Within the organism, It is included in many reactions of oxidation and reduction; it has a significant function in disintegration and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins as well as in energy creation within the cells.

The best food resource

Main resources of this vitamin are milk and dairy products, meat, fish, eggs, green vegetable (spinach, cabbage, savoy). Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children and Plazma Keksici za decu are enriched with vitamin B2 (100g of product contain 1mg which is 71% of required daily intake). It is naturally found in cocoa powder which is an ingredient of the following Bambi products: ČokoPlazma, Plazmica fully coated andPlazmaMlevena with chocolate for children.

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Niacin

Recommended intake

Needed quantity of this vitamin can be provided with intake of nicotinic acid or nicotinamide (natural derivative) and with intake of tryptophan (amino acid), where 60 mg of tryptophan is equivalent to one milligram of niacin. 15-19 mg of niacin, that is, of niacin equivalent is recommended to adults while the needs of children, pregnant and women breast feeding are slightly higher.

Function in an organism

It is important for series of oxide-reductive reactions in metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and tissue breathing.

The best food resource

Higher content of this vitamin is found in liver, meat, and milk and these are also excellent sources of tryptophan. Peanuts and walnuts are also good resources. Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children and Plazma Keksici za decu are enriched with niacin (100g of product contain 11,7mgwhich is 73% of required daily intake), as well as Plazma biscuits which in 100g of product contain 18 mg of this vitamin, ČokoPlazma (100g of product contain 17,5mg), Plazmica fully coated (100g of product contain 10,4mg) and Plazma Dobar start (100g of product contain 11,7mg).

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Panthotenic acid

Recommended intake

Daily needs will be satisfied with intake of 3 to 7 mg. There are larger needs during growth, pregnancy and lactation.

Function in an organism

It is part of the composition of acetyl CoA and as such it is significant for numerous reactions in metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates, first of all for synthesis of fatty acids, steroid hormones and glycolysis.

The best food resource

It is widely found in food especially that of animals, than in integral cereals and legumes. Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children and Plazma Keksici za decu are rich in Pantothenic acid (100g of product contain 1,8mg).

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Vitamin B6

Recommended intake

Daily needs are 1, 5-2, 0 mg per day and they are directly linked with the level of proteins in diet.

Function in an organism

It has an important function in synthesis of neurotransmitters, and it is linked with the metabolism of proteins and amino acids. It is included in synthesis of hemes.

The best food resource

This vitamin is found in chicken meat and pork, fish, liver, integral cereals, soy, peanuts, hazelnut.Plazma biscuit is enriched with vitamin B6 (100g of product contain 2mg), as well as Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children, Plazma biscuit for children (100g of product contain 0,6mg), ČokoPlazma (100g of product contain 2mg), Plazmica fully coated (100g of product contain 1,2mg) and Plazma Dobar start (100g of product contain 1,3mg). Cocoa powder contains vitamin B6, and it is an ingredient of the following Bambi-Banat products: ČokoPlazma, Plazmica fully coated and Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children.

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Biotin

Recommended intake

Recommended intake for adults is 30-100 µg per day.

Function in an organism

Biotin is a co-factor for several carboxylases significant for synthesis of fatty acids, metabolism of some amino acids, gluconeogenesis.

The best food resource

Excellent resources of biotin are liver, yolk, cereals, yeast. It is found in meat and fruit but in small quantities. Synthesis in intestines is possible.Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children and Plazma keksići za decu contain15 µg of biotin in 100g.

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Folic Acid

Recommended intake

Daily needs are 150-200 µg while during pregnancy and the first 6 months of lactation they are twice as high.

Function in an organism

Function of this vitamin is bound to vitamin B12 in synthesis of haemoglobin and synthesis of several amino acids and nucleoproteins significant for maturing of erythrocytes (red blood cells).

The best food resource

Folates are found in green vegetable, nuts, and grains. Usability depends on the presence of inhibiting factors. Preparation and cooking in particular destroys folates from food, therefore, 50% of taken folates are actually used. Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children and Plazma Keksici za decu are enriched with folic acid (100g of product contain 60µg). Plazma biscuit contains folic acid whose origin is from raw materials added (100g of product contain 95,8 µg). Cocoa powder contains folic acid, and it is an ingredient of the following Bambi-Banat products: ČokoPlazma, Plazmica fully coated and Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children.

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Vitamin B12

Recommended intake

Daily needs are 2 µg for adults, but they are slightly higher for foetal growth and lactation. As for the people that are vegetarians there can be a deficit of this vitamin and then supplementation is needed.

Function in an organism

Vitamin B12 or cobalamin is important in reaction of methionine synthase, together with folates, since there is a lack of them, megaloblasticanaemia will develop. It is significant for the process of propionate and fatty acids degradation especially within the nervous tissue.

The best food resource

Vitamin B12 is synthesized under the influence of bacteria, fungi, algae and bound to proteins it is found in food. Synthesis can occur in the intestine of the man, but it is very weak. More significant resource is liver and less significant ones are milk and cheese. Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children and Plazma Keksici za decu are enriched with vitamin B12 (100g of product contain 0,37µg).

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Vitamin C

Recommended intake

In order to provide balance and content of vitamin C in body, it is necessary to take in 60 mg daily. Smokers' needs and the needs of pregnant women and women breast feeding are slightly higher.

Function vitamin C

Vitamin C in higher doses can prevent many virus infections (first of all cold). It has a strong antioxidant effect.

The best food resource

The best resources of vitamin C are fruits, especially citrus, and vegetable (pepper, cabbage) Vitamin C is declared in Bambi products such as Plazma (100g of product contain 12,20mg), Plazma Keksici za decu and Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children (100g of product contain 30mg).

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Vitamin D

Recommended intake

Daily needs for vitamin D are 5-10 µg and food and/or sunbathing can provide it. Daily needs are slightly higher during pregnancy and breast feeding.

Function vitamin D

Vitamin D is important for bones, for their good mineralization because it influences calcium absorption. With vitamin A, vitamin D has significance in cell growth, preservation of haematopoiesis system and protection from certain forms of malignant diseases.

The best food resource

Although vitamin D is present in many kinds of food (yolk, salmon, tuna, herring, and to certain extent in milk), intake through food is less significant in comparison to the possibilities of creation within skin under the influence of sun rays. Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children and Plazma Keksici za decu are enriched with vitamin D (100g of product contain 3µg which is 60% of required daily intake).

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Vitamin E

Recommended intake

Recommended intake is defined in relation to the needs and is 10mg (alpha-tocopherol) daily. Taking into account protective effects of this vitamin, many recommend higher quantities. There is need for supplementation in smokers due to high content of free radicals.

Function vitamin E

Vitamin E has a strong antioxidant effect. It also plays a role in many biological processes like preservation of cell membrane integrity, immune system stimulation, and DNA synthesis.

The best food resource

The best resources of this vitamin are fats and oils. Other resources are vegetable, nuts, grains, enriched cereals as well as enriched soft margarine. Plazma is a natural resource of vitamin E (100g of product contain 2,0mg). Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children and Plazma Keksici za decu are enriched in vitamin E (100g of product contain 3mg which is ¼ of required daily intake).

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Minerals

Calcium

Recommended intake

Daily needs will be achieved with intake of 800-1200mg/per day. Higher intake is recommended for the children during their growth, pregnant women, women in menopause and elderly people.

What is good for

The role of this mineral is multiple. Calcium is a part of bone and teeth structure; it helps muscle contraction, blood coagulation, contraction and dilatation of blood vessels, enzyme activation, transfer of bioelectric impulses. It protects from rachitis, osteoporosis and hypertension.

The best food resource

The largest content of calcium is found in dairy products, like milk, yoghurt and cheese, especially hard cheese. Good resources of calcium are also broccoli, collard greens, cauliflower, soy, peanuts, sunflower seed, walnut, canned fished with the bones, water rich in calcium. Certain food is also enriched with calcium (bread, juices, cereals...). Spinach is rich in calcium, but it also contains oxalic acid which binds calcium and reduces adoption. . Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children and Plazma biscuit for children are enriched with calcium and they contain 280 mg(PlazmaMlevenawith chocolate for children) and 340 mg (Plazma keksići za decu) in 100g of products.

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Iron

Recommended intake

Needs depend on the age and it is hard to generalize them. The most suitable would be intake of 10-30mg per day.

What is good for

It is needed for disintegration of haemoglobin within blood and myoglobin within muscles, both of which carry oxygen from lungs to tissues and cells. Lack of oxygen causes anaemia.

The best food resource

Animal iron resources are red meat, internal organs, fish, feathery poultry, and eggs. Herbal resources rich in iron are: beans, lentil, integral and enriched cereals, green leafy vegetables, dry fruit Iron from animal resource is better absorbed than the herbal one, but absorption from herbal resources can be improved by consuming food containing vitamin C simultaneously. Plazma ground with chocolate with children and Plazma Keksici za decu are enriched with iron (100g of product contain 5mg). Plazma biscuit contains 3,3mg of iron in 100g of product, as well as Plazma Dobar start (100g of product contain 3,1mg) originating from raw materials added.

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Phosphorus

Recommended intake

Recommended intake is 700mg, except for the pregnant women and women breast feeding where the needs for phosphorus are higher and are 1200mg.

What is good for

Roles of phosphorus are numerous, and the main is that linked with calcium, it represents a constructive element of bones and teeth. It is part of many enzymes as well.

The best food resource

The richest resources are certainly kinds of food rich in albumin (proteins), especially those of animal origin. Cereals, beans, nut products and grains are also good resources of phosphorus. Plazma biscuit contains phosphorus, (100g of product contain 140mg) as well as Plazma Dobar Start (100g of product contain 117,9mg), originating from raw materials added.

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Zinc

Recommended intake

Recommended daily intake of zinc for adults is 10-15 mg/per day. The needs for zinc increase and are 19mg/per day in pregnant women and women breast feeding.

What is good for

Zinc is necessary for normal functioning of organism, since its roles are numerous. It is necessary for growth and development, for functioning of nervous system, for activities of numerous enzymes, for injury healing; it impacts creation of spermatozoids and testosterone; it prevents prostate gland from enlarging. It reduces the resistance to insulin. Lack of zinc causes: anaemia, slowdown of growth rhythm, slow injury healing, skin inflammation... Lack of zinc in children causes lower growth and slower mental development.

The best food resource

Natural zinc resources are: red meat (pork, beef), integral cereals, wheat germs, spinach, green beans, peas, eggs, milk, oyster, wine, pumpkin seed, yeast.Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children and Plazma Keksici za decu are enriched with zinc (100g of product contain 4,0mg).

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Potassium

Recommended intake

The most optimal intake of potassium is from 1100 to 2000mg/per day.

What is good for

Potassium serves to preservation of acid-base balance and electric potential of cell membrane, i.e. it influences neuromuscular irritation. It favourably influences the state of blood vessels and blood pressure. Increased intake of sodium which is characteristic of western nutrition i.e. increased intake of kitchen salt creates increased needs for intake of potassium. Diarrhoea, vomiting, intensified sweating, irregular diet, absorption disorders and usage of certain kinds of diuretics can cause lack of potassium.

The best food resource

It is found in every food of herbal and animal origin. Good potassium resources are bananas, orange juice, avocado, tomato, potato, and salmon, chicken. Cocoa powder contains potassium and it is one of the ingredients in: Čoko Plazma, Plazmica fully coated and Plazma Mlevena with chocolate for children.

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